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Nginx 学习日志 1

回顾

之前的时候写过Centos yum 安装nginx 后增加模块,源码安装的时候一笔带过,最近在学习Nginx其中的一些知识点,所以记录一下手动安装的过程,以及相关的配置。

安装

Nginx 一般可以去官网下载,Nginx,Nginx也有对应的商业版本Nginx Plus, 还有一些其他的基于Nginx开发的版本,TengineOpenResty都是比较有名的。

下载

Nginx下载,如下图,进入到下载页面,使用stable version稳定版。
nginx

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#下载
wget https://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.18.0.tar.gz

解压

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#解压
tar -xzf nginx-1.18.0.tar.gz

目录说明

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cd nginx-1.18.0/

tree -L 1 (查看1层目录,如果没有tree 命令 yum -y install tree 进行安装 )

.
├── auto # 编译、lib库、操作系统判断
├── CHANGES # feature、版本变更、bugfix
├── CHANGES.ru # 俄语changes
├── conf # 示例文件
├── configure # 生成中间文件
├── contrib # vim等相关配置
├── html # 标准文件页面50
├── LICENSE # LICENSE
├── man # 帮助文件
├── README #
└── src # 源码


# 复制vim 配置,可以让nginx配置显示颜色,更加方便的配置
cp -r contrib/vim/* ~/.vim/

编译

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#查看编译配置
./configure --help | cat
--help print this message

--prefix=PATH set installation prefix
--sbin-path=PATH set nginx binary pathname
--modules-path=PATH set modules path
--conf-path=PATH set nginx.conf pathname
--error-log-path=PATH set error log pathname
--pid-path=PATH set nginx.pid pathname
--lock-path=PATH set nginx.lock pathname

--user=USER set non-privileged user for
worker processes
--group=GROUP set non-privileged group for
worker processes

--build=NAME set build name
--builddir=DIR set build directory

--with-select_module enable select module
--without-select_module disable select module
--with-poll_module enable poll module
--without-poll_module disable poll module

--with-threads enable thread pool support

--with-file-aio enable file AIO support

--with-http_ssl_module enable ngx_http_ssl_module
--with-http_v2_module enable ngx_http_v2_module
--with-http_realip_module enable ngx_http_realip_module
--with-http_addition_module enable ngx_http_addition_module
--with-http_xslt_module enable ngx_http_xslt_module
--with-http_xslt_module=dynamic enable dynamic ngx_http_xslt_module
--with-http_image_filter_module enable ngx_http_image_filter_module
--with-http_image_filter_module=dynamic
enable dynamic ngx_http_image_filter_module
--with-http_geoip_module enable ngx_http_geoip_module
--with-http_geoip_module=dynamic enable dynamic ngx_http_geoip_module
--with-http_sub_module enable ngx_http_sub_module
--with-http_dav_module enable ngx_http_dav_module
--with-http_flv_module enable ngx_http_flv_module
--with-http_mp4_module enable ngx_http_mp4_module
--with-http_gunzip_module enable ngx_http_gunzip_module
--with-http_gzip_static_module enable ngx_http_gzip_static_module
--with-http_auth_request_module enable ngx_http_auth_request_module
--with-http_random_index_module enable ngx_http_random_index_module
--with-http_secure_link_module enable ngx_http_secure_link_module
--with-http_degradation_module enable ngx_http_degradation_module
--with-http_slice_module enable ngx_http_slice_module
--with-http_stub_status_module enable ngx_http_stub_status_module

--without-http_charset_module disable ngx_http_charset_module
--without-http_gzip_module disable ngx_http_gzip_module
--without-http_ssi_module disable ngx_http_ssi_module
--without-http_userid_module disable ngx_http_userid_module
--without-http_access_module disable ngx_http_access_module
--without-http_auth_basic_module disable ngx_http_auth_basic_module
--without-http_mirror_module disable ngx_http_mirror_module
--without-http_autoindex_module disable ngx_http_autoindex_module
--without-http_geo_module disable ngx_http_geo_module
--without-http_map_module disable ngx_http_map_module
--without-http_split_clients_module disable ngx_http_split_clients_module
--without-http_referer_module disable ngx_http_referer_module
--without-http_rewrite_module disable ngx_http_rewrite_module
--without-http_proxy_module disable ngx_http_proxy_module
--without-http_fastcgi_module disable ngx_http_fastcgi_module
--without-http_uwsgi_module disable ngx_http_uwsgi_module
--without-http_scgi_module disable ngx_http_scgi_module
--without-http_grpc_module disable ngx_http_grpc_module
--without-http_memcached_module disable ngx_http_memcached_module
--without-http_limit_conn_module disable ngx_http_limit_conn_module
--without-http_limit_req_module disable ngx_http_limit_req_module
--without-http_empty_gif_module disable ngx_http_empty_gif_module
--without-http_browser_module disable ngx_http_browser_module
--without-http_upstream_hash_module
disable ngx_http_upstream_hash_module
--without-http_upstream_ip_hash_module
disable ngx_http_upstream_ip_hash_module
--without-http_upstream_least_conn_module
disable ngx_http_upstream_least_conn_module
--without-http_upstream_random_module
disable ngx_http_upstream_random_module
--without-http_upstream_keepalive_module
disable ngx_http_upstream_keepalive_module
--without-http_upstream_zone_module
disable ngx_http_upstream_zone_module

--with-http_perl_module enable ngx_http_perl_module
--with-http_perl_module=dynamic enable dynamic ngx_http_perl_module
--with-perl_modules_path=PATH set Perl modules path
--with-perl=PATH set perl binary pathname

--http-log-path=PATH set http access log pathname
--http-client-body-temp-path=PATH set path to store
http client request body temporary files
--http-proxy-temp-path=PATH set path to store
http proxy temporary files
--http-fastcgi-temp-path=PATH set path to store
http fastcgi temporary files
--http-uwsgi-temp-path=PATH set path to store
http uwsgi temporary files
--http-scgi-temp-path=PATH set path to store
http scgi temporary files

--without-http disable HTTP server
--without-http-cache disable HTTP cache

--with-mail enable POP3/IMAP4/SMTP proxy module
--with-mail=dynamic enable dynamic POP3/IMAP4/SMTP proxy module
--with-mail_ssl_module enable ngx_mail_ssl_module
--without-mail_pop3_module disable ngx_mail_pop3_module
--without-mail_imap_module disable ngx_mail_imap_module
--without-mail_smtp_module disable ngx_mail_smtp_module

--with-stream enable TCP/UDP proxy module
--with-stream=dynamic enable dynamic TCP/UDP proxy module
--with-stream_ssl_module enable ngx_stream_ssl_module
--with-stream_realip_module enable ngx_stream_realip_module
--with-stream_geoip_module enable ngx_stream_geoip_module
--with-stream_geoip_module=dynamic enable dynamic ngx_stream_geoip_module
--with-stream_ssl_preread_module enable ngx_stream_ssl_preread_module
--without-stream_limit_conn_module disable ngx_stream_limit_conn_module
--without-stream_access_module disable ngx_stream_access_module
--without-stream_geo_module disable ngx_stream_geo_module
--without-stream_map_module disable ngx_stream_map_module
--without-stream_split_clients_module
disable ngx_stream_split_clients_module
--without-stream_return_module disable ngx_stream_return_module
--without-stream_upstream_hash_module
disable ngx_stream_upstream_hash_module
--without-stream_upstream_least_conn_module
disable ngx_stream_upstream_least_conn_module
--without-stream_upstream_random_module
disable ngx_stream_upstream_random_module
--without-stream_upstream_zone_module
disable ngx_stream_upstream_zone_module

--with-google_perftools_module enable ngx_google_perftools_module
--with-cpp_test_module enable ngx_cpp_test_module

--add-module=PATH enable external module
--add-dynamic-module=PATH enable dynamic external module

--with-compat dynamic modules compatibility

--with-cc=PATH set C compiler pathname
--with-cpp=PATH set C preprocessor pathname
--with-cc-opt=OPTIONS set additional C compiler options
--with-ld-opt=OPTIONS set additional linker options
--with-cpu-opt=CPU build for the specified CPU, valid values:
pentium, pentiumpro, pentium3, pentium4,
athlon, opteron, sparc32, sparc64, ppc64

--without-pcre disable PCRE library usage
--with-pcre force PCRE library usage
--with-pcre=DIR set path to PCRE library sources
--with-pcre-opt=OPTIONS set additional build options for PCRE
--with-pcre-jit build PCRE with JIT compilation support

--with-zlib=DIR set path to zlib library sources
--with-zlib-opt=OPTIONS set additional build options for zlib
--with-zlib-asm=CPU use zlib assembler sources optimized
for the specified CPU, valid values:
pentium, pentiumpro

--with-libatomic force libatomic_ops library usage
--with-libatomic=DIR set path to libatomic_ops library sources

--with-openssl=DIR set path to OpenSSL library sources
--with-openssl-opt=OPTIONS set additional build options for OpenSSL

--with-debug enable debug logging

从上面的帮助可以看到,主要的编译配置分为3类

  • 配置文件位置指定
  • 指定使用和不使用的模块with(增加编译)、without(移除编译)
  • 优化参数、第三方模块,日志位置等
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#编译,指定位置
./configure --prefix=/home/nginx

可能会出现报错

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./configure: error: the HTTP rewrite module requires the PCRE library.
You can either disable the module by using --without-http_rewrite_module
option, or install the PCRE library into the system, or build the PCRE library
statically from the source with nginx by using --with-pcre=<path> option.

根据提示,可以安装对应的库,或者在编译的时候选择移除对应的模块,或者选择从源码编译

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#安装 pcre library
yum -y install pcre-devel

再次编译提示缺少 zlib

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./configure: error: the HTTP gzip module requires the zlib library.
You can either disable the module by using --without-http_gzip_module
option, or install the zlib library into the system, or build the zlib library
statically from the source with nginx by using --with-zlib=<path> option.
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# 安装zlib library
yum -y install zlib-devel

再次编译以后,提示编译成功,以及nginx 相关的路径、模块等目录

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Configuration summary
+ using system PCRE library
+ OpenSSL library is not used
+ using system zlib library

nginx path prefix: "/home/nginx"
nginx binary file: "/home/nginx/sbin/nginx"
nginx modules path: "/home/nginx/modules"
nginx configuration prefix: "/home/nginx/conf"
nginx configuration file: "/home/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"
nginx pid file: "/home/nginx/logs/nginx.pid"
nginx error log file: "/home/nginx/logs/error.log"
nginx http access log file: "/home/nginx/logs/access.log"
nginx http client request body temporary files: "client_body_temp"
nginx http proxy temporary files: "proxy_temp"
nginx http fastcgi temporary files: "fastcgi_temp"
nginx http uwsgi temporary files: "uwsgi_temp"
nginx http scgi temporary files: "scgi_temp"

编译生成了中间文件 objs,通过查看ngx_modules.c,可以知道nginx编译了哪些模块
执行make编译make install 安装
安装完成进入 /home/nginx/启动nginx以后

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.
├── client_body_temp
├── conf
├── fastcgi_temp
├── html
├── logs
├── proxy_temp
├── sbin
├── scgi_temp
└── uwsgi_temp

就可以看到所有的目录以及文件了。

在生产环境中,要根据实际的情况增加第三方模块

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